Youns, M., Hoheisel, J. D., and Efferth, T. (2010). A., Zapfack, L., Dongmo, Z., Nguenang, G. M., Lando, G., Carlson, T. J., and Lowry, II. annobonae Pax & K. Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) exhibited significant antimicrobial (MIC < 10 µg/ml) activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Kuete et al., 2010b). IC50 values below 5 µg/ml were reported with compounds 38 (3.53 µM); 39 (1.29 µM); 40 (3.86 µM) and 50 (3.17 µM) (Ngouela et al., 2006). They are used as decoction, infusion, maceration, powder, powder mixtures, plaster, calcinations, and squeeze in water, boiling, cooking with young cock or sheep meat or groundnut paste, direct eating, juice, fumigation, and sitz bath (Jiofack et al., 2010). plants that used in Nigeria. For compounds, this stringent endpoints criteria were: significant (MIC < 10 µg/ml), moderate (10 < MIC ≤ 100 µg/ml), and low or negligible (MIC > 100 µg/ml) (Kuete, 2010a). (Accessed on May 03, 2010). CAM 6, 123–130. Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden. J. Trad. Phytochemistry 69, 1726–1731. However, few studies have focused on these activities, explaining the scarcity of published data. J. Ethnopharmacol. By Chet Carrie. 123, 483–488. 57, 161–163. Hence, most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents also have analgesic activity. Figure 2. Mode of action of bullatacin, a potent antitumor acetogenin: inhibition of NADH oxidase activity HeLa and HL-60 but not liver, plasma membranes. Jiofack et al. Curr. Eur. 70, 461–477. Are smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients a “sentinel” population for the HIV epidemic in Cameroon? Evaluation of Antiaris africana methanol extract and compounds for antioxidant and antitumor activities. Arkivoc 9, 91–103. Kuete, V., Mbaveng, A. T., Tsaffack, M., Beng, V. P., Etoa, F. X., Nkengfack, A. E., Marion Meyer, J. J., and Lall, N. (2008). (2007). Vardamides, J. C., El Alaoui, H., Massoma, D. L., Azebaze, A. G. B., Ndemangou, B., Sielinou, V. T., Meyer, M., Vivares, C. P., Fomum, Z. T., and Nkengfack, A. E. (2008). (2007). CAM 5, 302–321. Boyom, F. F., Kemgne, E. M., Tepongning, R., Ngouana, V., Mbacham, W. F., Tsamo, E., Amvam Zollo, P. H., Gut, J., and Rosenthal, P. J. Onunkwo, G. C., Akah, P. A., and Udeala, O. K. (1996). Cameroon Major Infectious Diseases. (Guttiferae). Aloe Vera Hyg. J. Nat. Polyhydroxyoleanane-type triterpenoids from Combretum molle and their anti-inflammatory activity. Fifteen crude extracts from the stem bark and seeds of four medicinal plants, viz: Entandrophragma angolense, Picralima nitida, Schumanniophyton magnificumand Thomandersia hensiiwere tested in vitrofor their antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparumW2 strain. Cancer 45, 795–798. 15, 211–222. No. There are also traditional doctors that play a great role as far as the provisions of health care services are concerned. (2007) demonstrated that compound 47 induced apoptotic cell death with caspase-3 and -9 activation and Bax upregulation in neuroblastoma cell lines. Vivien, J., and Faure, J. J. Noumi, E., and Dibakto, T. W. (2002). Trends Parasitol. niger) root. (Accessed on May 04, 2010). 21, 508–512. Antimalarial activity in crude extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 62, 34–40. The 5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme-V test is useful in detecting liver metastatis in breast, gastrointestinal, lung, and various other forms of cancers (Lei-Injo et al., 1980). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Med. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae) in diabetic rats. (Sterculiaceae), Eremospatha macrocarpa (Mann & Wendl.) 62, 95–99. Flore Forestière Soudano-Guinéene A.O.F. Osadebe, P. O., and Okoye, F. B. C. (2003). 2, 60–79. Sci 2, 89-96. Antimalarial terpenoids including sesqui-, di-, and triterpenoids are the most frequently isolated compounds from Cameroonian plants. Trends Parasitol. 14, 368–370. More than 60% of the approved anticancer drugs in United State of America (from 1983 to 1994) were from natural origin (Stévigny et al., 2005; Newman and Cragg, 2007). Obih, P. O., Makinde, J. M., and Laoye, J. Fitoterapia 71, 406–512. More than 50 microorganisms were found to be sensitive to such extracts and significant activity with minimally inhibiting concentrations (MIC) of less than 100 µg/ml (Kuete, 2010a). Antiplasmodial activities of some products from Turreanthus africanus (Meliaceae). World Health Organ. 119, 482–500. Mosmann, T. (1983). Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). Afr. (Palmae), Cola acuminata (P.Beauv.) London: Oxford University Press. Calas, M., Cordina, G., Bompart, J., Bari, M. B., Jei, T., Ancelin, M. L., and Vial, H. (1997). Pak. DOI: 10.5860/choice.31-5446 Corpus ID: 78745534. A., and Watchueng, J. Lenta, B. N., Tantangmo, F., Devkota, K. P., Wansi, J. D., Chouna, J. R., Fongang Soh, R. C., Neumann, B., Stammler, H. G., Tsamo, E., and Sewald, N. (2009). Sandberg, F., and Cronlund, A. J. Nat. New classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus. Thomandertiol, a tetraterpenoid from the twigs of Thomandersia laurifolia. (2003). 75, 256–261. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Table2.pdf. (2001). Etat des lieux des plantes médicinales importantes à conserver et des jardins de plantes médicinales à promouvoir. 2, 192–195. J. Trad. 70, 2857–2869. (Accessed on November 08, 2009). CAM 2, 134–152. Trans. All rights reserved. Weenen, H., Nkunya, M. H. H., Bray, D. H., Mwasumbi, L. B., Kinabo, L. S., and Kilimali, V. A. E. B. Nishimura, R., Tabata, K., Arakawa, M., Ito, Y., Kimura, Y., Akihisa, T., Nagai, H., Sakuma, A., Kohno, H., and Suzuki, T. (2007). Tchinda, A. T., Tsopmo, A., Tane, P., Ayafor, J. F., Connolly, J. D., and Sterner, O. Fotio, A. L., Dimo, T., Ngo Lemba, E., Temdie, R. J., Ngueguim, F., and Kamtchouing, P. (2009). Phytomedicine 10, 53–58. Mojeremane, W., and Tshwenyane, S. O. 33, 320–328. The role of vegetative propagation in the domestication of Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum), a highly threatened medicinal species of West and Central Africa. B., Azebaze, A. G. B., Alaoui, K., Asongalem, A. E., Cherrah, Y., and Kamtchouing, P. (2009). Int. Leishmaniasis: background information. Bull. # Enter your Registered Mobile (+91xxxxxxxxxx) or Email, BP 8211, Yaounde, Yaounde, Centre, Cameroon, This site uses cookies. Wang, H., Nair, M. G., Strasburg, G. M., Chen-Chang, Y., Booren, A. M., Gray, I. J., and DeWitt, D. L. (1999). Kuete (2010a) also set the bar as follows for extract: significant (MIC < 100 µg/ml), moderate (100 < CMI ≤ 625 µg/ml) or weak (CMI > 625 µg/ml). Ponou, B. K., Luciano Barboni, L., Teponno, R. B., Mbiantcha, M., Nguelefack, T. B., Park, H. J., Lee, K. T., and Tapondjou, A. L. (2008). Schoot et Endl. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants of two ethnoecological regions of Cameroon. Chem. Bangangxanthone A and B, two xanthones from the stem bark of Garcinia polyantha Oliv. Kuete, V., Poumale Poumale, H. M., Guedem, A. N., Shino, Y., Randrianasolo, R., and Ngadjui, B. T. (2010b). Szeltner, Z., Renner, V., and Polgar, L. (2000). 468, 67–74. Bioactive labdane diterpenoid from Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) collected from Suriname rainforest. WHO. J. Ethnopharmacol. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. It results either from inadequate secretion of hormone insulin, an inadequate response of target cells to insulin, or a combination of these factors (Malviya et al., 2010). Voss, C., Eyol, E., and Berger, M. R. (2005). Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion by chalcones from the twigs of Dorstenia barteri bureau. In Cameroon, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 2% in 1998 (in a study supported by the World Diabetes Foundation, WDF) to 5% in 2003 and 6.5% in 2007 (in another WDF study, Walgate, 2008). Ekwalla, N., and Tongo, E. (2003). Trop. Activity [(a) antimalarial, (b) anti-inflammatory, (c) antitrypanosomal]; Glc, glucosyl group; Ac, acetyl group. 22, 211–216. J. Med. Pham-Huy, L. A., He, H., and Pham-Huyc, C. (2008). Carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1/500000e. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the crude extract and compounds from Dorstenia turbinata (Moraceae). Sokeng, S. D., Lontsi, D., Moundipa, P. F., Jatsa, H. B., Watcho, P., and Kamtchouing, P. (2007). The medicinal plants have been used for treatment Of illnesses and diseases, since the dawn of time. A review of the antimicrobial potential of Cameroon medicinal plants (Kuete, 2010a) reported more than 58 species in vitro active extracts or isolated compounds. Tech. About 155 plant species are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) as threatened species. WHO. Ojewole, J. India’s First & Largest Virtual Event on Consumer Goods! Paris: ORSTOM. However, some Cameroonian plants and derived natural products were tested for their anti-proliferative effects. 38, 1087–1094. Substrate- and pH-dependent contribution of oxyanion binding site of the catalysis of prolyl oligopeptidase, a paradigm of serine oligopeptidase family. 54, 1749–1752. Jiofack, T., Fokunang, C., Guedje, N., Kemeuze, V., Fongnzossie, E., Nkongmeneck, B. Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa. Nkongmeneck, B. (1994). This is one of top 5 medicinal plants. (2001). List of Medicinal Plants & Uses. The cells do this by releasing free oxidant radicals, and these by-products are generally reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as super oxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide that result from cellular redox processes (Ames et al., 1993; Mongelli et al., 1997). Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia: Contribution to Ethnopharmacological and Floristic Studies in Cameroon. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants @inproceedings{Iwu1993HandbookOA, title={Handbook of African Medicinal Plants… 62, 1432–1434. The review inevitably shows the richness of the Cameroon flora as medicinal resource and demonstrates the effectiveness of numerous traditionally used plants. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients. Globulixanthones A and B, two new cytotoxic xanthones with isoprenoid groups from the root bark of Symphonia globulifera. Res 10, 418–420. Eyong, K. O., Kumar, P. S., Kuete, V., Folefoc, G. N., Nkengfack, A. E., and Baskaran, S. (2008). It is now necessary to selectively screen some of the medicinal plants for their allelopathic or bioactive principles that could be exploited for … Compound 28, the main constituent of a Cameroonian medicinal plant, Newbouldia leavis (Bignoniaceae) was found to be very active against DU-145 cells with an IC50 of 64.59 nM (Eyong et al., 2008). Rice-Evans and L. Packer (New York: Marcel Dekker), 277–295. Ojewole, J. Bark extract as well as terpenoids from Combretum molle (Combretaceae), β-d-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,6β-trihydroxy-23-galloylolean-12-en-28-oate (18); combregenin (19); arjungenin (20) (Figure 2) showed good activities against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat (Ponou et al., 2008). A., Sompong, S., and Delorenzo, R. J. Phytother. Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants. Public spending on health care in Africa: do the poor benefit? Wighteone (53) and alpinumisoflavone (54) isolated from Erythrina indica (Leguminosae) were reported to be cytotoxic (effective dose of 0.78 and 4.13 µg/ml, respectively) when tested against KB nasopharyngeal cancer cells (Nkengfack et al., 2001). CAM 4, 240–244. (1985). Isoflavones, griffonianone D (55) (Figure 3) isolated from Millettia griffoniana (Yankep et al., 2003), warangalone (56) isolated from the bark of Erythrina addisoniae (Talla et al., 2003), and erycristagallin (57) isolated from the root of Erythrina mildbraedii (Njamen et al., 2003), showed marked effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory on PLA2-induced paw edema and on TPA-induced ear edema in mice (Njamen et al., 2003; Talla et al., 2003). 1, p. 30) Acorus calamus, Drug sweetflag - “This plant has many uses ranging from a flavoring agent and insecticide to tonic.” Paris: Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of some isolated constituents from the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola Staner L.C (Guttiferae). Eur. List of 10 Medicinal plants and their uses from Biology Exams 4 U. Cos, P., Vlietinck, A. J., Vanden Berghe, D., and Maes, L. (2006). Pierre (Euphorbiaceae) (Koné, 1997). The diversity of the biosynthetic pathways in plants has provided a variety of lead structures that have been used in drug development. Plants Res. CAM 4, 107–111. Giner-Larza, E. M., Manez, S., Recio, M. C., Giner, R. M., Prieto, J. M., Cerda-Nicolas, M., and Rios, J. L. (2001). In this last decade, investigations on natural compounds have been particularly successful in the field of anticancer drug research. (2009). Cameroun Paris: A.E.F, Société d’Edition Géographique Maritime et Coloniale. Plants used as abortificients in the Sangmelima region of Southern Cameroon. Letouzey, R. (1985). Afr. Activity [(a) antimicrobial, (b) anti-inflammatory, (c) antimalarial, (d) anti-proliferative, (e) antioxidant]. (1999). Terms of Use © Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Prod. Prod. Prod. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Bridelia scleroneura (Euphorbiaceae). Significant antitrypanosomal activities were also reported for stigmastane derivatives, vernoguinosterol (21) and vernoguinoside (22) (Figure 2) isolated from Vernonia guineensis (Asteraceae), against bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense with IC50 values ranging from 3 to 5 µg/ml (Tchinda et al., 2002). Phytochemistry 66, 2351–2355. A., Tsopmo, A., Ayafor, J. F., Sterner, O., Okunjic, C. C., Iwu, M. M., and Schuster, B. M. (1999). Several medicinal plants and derived products were screened for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties (Table 4). 44,275–295. 47, 1042–1049. Watt, J. M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M. G. (1962). Privacy In vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of five medicinal plants of Malvaceae family from Cameroon. Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnopharmacology, Africa, Citation: Kuete V and Efferth T (2010) Cameroonian medicinal plants: pharmacology and derived natural products. / Kg ) Medicinal Use: Amla ( T )After 4th year: Emblica officinalis Fam - euphorbiaceac: Fruit: Rs 15 - 45/kg Hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. in rats. Bessong, P. O., Obi, C. L., Igumbor, E., Andreola, M.-L., and Litvak, S. (2004). Geneva. However, the government strategies of health envisage the organization of traditional medicine in order to provide the main trends for the development and its integration (Anonymous, 2006). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular grow and survival application and cytotoxicity assays. 1. (1980). Therefore, it is necessary to search for new drugs with less adverse effects. (1990). 93, 127–129. Ngantchou, I., Barthélemy Nyasse, B., Denier, C., Blonski, C., Hannaert, V., and Schneider, B. 10, 537–544. Updates 7, 257–266. 115, 494–501. 70, 1650–1653. Ngo Mpeck, M. L., Tchoundjeu, Z., and Asaah, E. (2004). Cytotoxic isoflavones from Erythrina indica. Lae, Papua New Guinea, pp. In Cameroon, several plant species are used to treat malaria. Food. Manag. Other recommendations include parallel screenings by using cytotoxicity tests to preclude non-specific cytotoxicity from being interpreted as efficient following in vitro screening. 5, 17. 63, 193–200. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of these plants were attributed to their ability to restore the function of pancreatic tissues by increasing insulin output, inhibiting the intestinal absorption of glucose, or enhancing metabolism of insulin-dependent processes. Leishmania species cause a spectrum of disease ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to life-threatening visceral infections, with 2 million new cases occurring annually (WHO, 2005). Medicinal plants native to Africa — used in historical and/or contemporary healing traditions. Some of the extracts including those from Bersama engleriana, Dorstenia angusticornis, Dorstenia barteri, Diospyros canaliculata, Diospyros crassiflora, Newbouldia laevis, and Ficus cordata exhibited a wide range of activity on both bacteria and fungi (Kuete, 2010a). The drug names were found to be unaltered Prod. Studies in the Mouse. Fairlamb, A. Hyg. New isoflavone from Ceiba pendandra. Lagos–Nigeria: OAU/STRC. Protected zones include both land (3,741 ha) and marine areas (389 ha) (EarthTrends, 2003). J. Ethnopharmacol. Cancer Lett. Adjanohoun, E. J., Ahyi, A. M. R., Ake Assi, L., Moutsambote, J. M., Mpati, J., Doulou, V., and Baniakina, J. Biodiversity and Protected Areas-Cameroon. 23, 85–90. 67, 113–118. Paper pending published: 30 July 2010; Phytochemistry 67, 433–438. 69, 767–770. Antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bersama engleriana (Melianthaceae). Modulation of NSAID-induced antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by (2-adrenoceptor agonists with gastroprotective effects. Prod. J. Tuberc. Abrogation of Akt signaling by Isobavachalcone contributes to its anti-proliferative effects towards human cancer cells. 4,771–775. WHO. Rep. Ser 646, 1–80. However, further studies should be undertaken to validate their efficacy and safety, and to standardize practice. Jatsa, H. B., Ngo Sock, E. T., Tchuem Tchuente, L. A., and Kamtchouing, P. (2009). A. However this compounds was active in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis and inactive in vivo using hamster infected model (Lima et al., 2004). Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. Pharm. Anti-inflammatory effects of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Alchornea cordifolia leaves. Pain is one common health problem with substantial socioeconomic impact because of its high incidence. Only few researchers in Cameroon focused on antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial compounds from medicinal plants. Phythother. 89, 19–24. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals.Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. 60, 1287–1293. A., Mapongmetsem, P. M., and Tsabang, N. (2010). (1950). A review of the antimicrobial potential of Cameroon medicinal plants (Kuete, 2010a) reported more than 58 species in vitro active extracts or isolated compounds. Njike, G. N., Watcho, P., Nguelefack, T. B., and Kamanyi, A. Ndebia, E. J., Kamgang, R., and Nkeh-ChungagAnye, B. N. (2007). A. O. 15, 426–430. Table 3. Facts About Cameroon. Res. Infect. The most recurrent diseases or disorders treated are typhoid, male sexual disorders, malaria, gonorrhea, gastritis, rheumatism, fever, dysentery, diarrhea, dermatitis, boils, cough, wounds, syphilis, sterility, sexually transmitted diseases, ovarian cysts, and amoebiasis, with more than two hundred plants being used to cure these diseases or disorders (Jiofack et al., 2010). Nkengfack, A. E., Mkounga, P., Fomum, Z. T., Meyer, M., and Bodo, B. At low or moderate concentrations, ROS exert beneficial effects on cellular responses and immune function. 95, 63–68. Figure 1. The biodiversity of Cameroon in term of protected land area, number of plant and some animals groups with threatened species are summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1. Am. Compounds with good antileishmanial activities were isolated from Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae), with IC50 values of 2.0 and 6.6 µg/ml, respectively, for dihydrochelerythrine (62) and 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (63) against L. donovani (Fotie et al., 2007). Several plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants were reported for their antimalarial activities (Table 2), the most active (IC50 < 1 µg/ml) being that from Enantia chlorantha (Boyom et al., 2009). Ngameni, B., Touaibia, M., Patnam, R., Belkaid, A., Sonna, P., Ngadjui, B. T., Annabi, B., and Roy, R. (2006). Prenylated anthronoid antioxidants from the stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis. Paris: ORSTOM-IRC. Planta Med. Ngouela, S., Lenta, B. N., Tchamo Noungoue, D., Ngoupayo, J., Boyom, F., Tsamo, E., Gut, J., Rosenthal, P. J., and Connolly, J. D. (2006). 428, 137–143. 69, 27–33. Phytochemistry 66, 1174–1179. J. Trad. (Leguminosae), Baillonella toxisperma Pierre var. 3, 635–640. A., Adewunmi, C. O., Iwalewa, E. O., Ngadjui, B. T., Adenowo, T. K., Abegaz, B. M., Ojewole, J. 8, 346–351. 106, 290–302. “Flavonoids as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in membranes,” in Flavonoids in Health and Disease, eds C.A. Lugasi, A., Dworschak, E., Blazovics, A., and Kery, A. 2001 Jun;47(6):155-8. doi: 10.4314/cajm.v47i6.8607. We will take into consideration up to IC50 < 20 µg/ml to report on the activity of antimalarial compounds isolated from Cameroonian medicinal plants. Rich.)Hochst. 66, 891–893. Sci. Pharm. J. Ethnopharmacol. Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii. Cameroon has a rich biodiversity, with about 8,620 plants species and several animal groups (EarthTrends, 2003), encountered in both protected (about 8 %), and unprotected areas. WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Acanthus ilicifolius (Acanthaceae). Oliver-Bever, B. Agrobios, India: A Complete Source Book. Evaluation of the antimicrobial property of the stem bark of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae). (2010). 116, 228–233. Hochst.] J. Trad. Tabopda, T. K., Ngoupayo, J., Liu, J., Mitaine-Offer, A. C., Tanoli, S. A., Khan, S. N., Ali, M. S., Ngadjui, B. T., Tsamo, T., Lacaille-Dubois, M. A., and Luu, B. Nkeh-Chungag, B. N., Temdie, J. R., Sewani-Rusike, C., Fodjo, Y. M., Mbafor, J. T., and Iputo, J. E. (2009). Plant extracts can be an important source of safer drugs for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Table 2. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of chronic and degenerative ailments such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cataract, aging, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases (Willcox et al., 2004b; Pham-Huy et al., 2008). Sexual stimulation effects of the aqueous and methanolic extracts from the leaves of Bersama engleriana in adult male rats. 13 Acrra, Ghana: F.A.O. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Phytomedicine 10, 675–681. 45, 15–23. 68, 189–193. Trypanocidal and antileishmanial dihydrochelerythrine derivatives from garcinia lucida. Res. Afr. J. Biomed. Policy- 72, 2130–2134. Anti-Salmonella activity of medicinal plants from Cameroon Cent Afr J Med. Prunus africana is the scientific name of Red Stinkwood and it is commonly known as Prunus africana is known by the common names African cherry, pygeum (from its former scientific name, Pygeum africanum), iron wood, red stinkwood, African plum, African prune, and bitter almond. [Anacardiaceae] stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Doula, Cameroon: Ed I.C. Agents Chemother. used. Triterpenes such as 3-α-acetoxy-27-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid, β-elemonic acid, 3 α-acetoxy-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, and β-boswellic acid also exhibited prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activities (Atta-ur-Rahman et al., 2005). (Accessed on May 03, 2010). Afr. J. Med. 110, 434–438. Pharmacol. medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro . (1986). Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. The threshold for in vitro chloroquine resistance has been defined as IC50 > 100 nM (Ringwald et al., 1996). Afrikanische Arzneiplanzen und Jagdgifte. Rich.) Dimo, T., Rakotonirina, S. V., Tan, P. V., Azay, J., Dongo, E., Kamtchouing, P., and Cros, G. (2007). Compound 47 isolated from Dorstenia barteri (Ngameni et al., 2007) and D. turbinata (Ngameni et al., 2009) was cytotoxic toward a wide spectrum of tumor cell lines, including ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-8 cells, prostate carcinoma PC3 cells, breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells (Jing et al., 2010). St. Augustin, Deutschland: Haus Volker und kulturen. This cut-off point for good cytotoxic compound has also been defined as 10 µM (Brahemi et al., 2010). Bull. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. Warangalone, the isoflavonoid anti-inflammatory principle of Erythrina addisoniae Stem Bark. (1988). Introduction The proposed cut-off points for in vitro activity of antimalarial extracts based on their IC50 values can be categorized as follows: IC50 < 0.1 µg/ml (very good); 0.1–1 µg/ml (good); 1.1–10 µg/ml (good to moderate); 11–25 µg/ml (weak), 26–50 (very weak), >100 µg/ml (inactive) (Willcox et al., 2004a). [Anacardiaceae] stem-bark ethanolic extract (SBE) modulates blood glucose, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Afr. The following inhibition percentages were proposed for in vivo activity of antimalarial extracts at a fixed dose of 250 mg/kg/day: 100–90% (very good activity); 90–50% (good to moderate); 50–10% (moderate to weak); 0% (inactive) (Willcox et al., 2004a). Edinburgh: Livingstone, E.S. These include, by order of merit, Leguminosae (13.9%), Moraceae (10.6%), Guttiferae (10.1%), Rutaceae (6.5%), Meliaceae (4.5%), Euphorbiaceae (4.4%), Compositae (3.9%), Zingiberaceae (3.4%), Ochnaceae (3.2%), Bignioniaceae (3.1%), Sapotaceae (3.1%) and Apocynaceae (2.8%), Figure 2. 9, 353–360. Gelfand, M., Mavi, S., Drummond, R. B., and Ndemera, B. Telefo, P. B., Moundipa, P. F., Tchana, A. N., Dzickotze, C. T., and Mbiapo, F. T. (1998). Biodiversity and protected area in Cameroon, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the World (Source: EarthTrends, 2003). Antitrypanosomal alkaloids from Polyalthia suaveolens (Annonaceae): their effects on three selected glycolytic enzymes of Trypanosoma brucei. Walgate, R. (2008). Med. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with one common manifestation, hyperglycemia (WHO, 1980, 1985). India's Largest B2B Marketplace, Connecting Buyers and Sellers. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/en/. Castro-Leal, J., Dayton, L., and Mehra, K. (2000). 7, 411–417. Medicinal plants have been used for the development of new drugs and continue to play an invaluable role for the progress of drug discovery (Raza et al., 2001). However, few studies have focused on these activities, explaining the scarcity of published data. Biochem. Noumi, E., Houngue, F., and Lontsi, D. (1999).Traditional medicines in primary health care: plants used for the treatment of hypertension in Bafia, Cameroon. Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis: current and future prospects. EarthTrends. (Clusiaceae), Garcinia cola Heckel (Clusiaceae), Gnetum africanum Welw. Etude Ethnobotanique des Plantes Utilisées Dans la Pharmacopée Traditionnelle à la Réunion. Drug Res. 76, 1–13. Medicinal Plants: 1.Ginkgo seeds; 2.Strophanthus seeds; and 3.Prumus africana. Lett. Bull. Medicinal plants used for peptic ulcer in the Bangangté region, western Cameroon. This category has only the following subcategory. Neuwinger, H. D. (1998). Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. (2004). Dimo, T., Fotio, A. L., Nguelefack, T. B., Asongalem, E. A., and Kamtchouing, P. (2006). Efflux pumps are involved in the defense of Gram-negative bacteria against the natural products isobavachalcone and diospyrone. Norbergenin derivatives from the stem bark of Diospyros sanza-minika (Ebenaceae) and their radical scavenging activity. Family: Lamiaceae. Ethnobotanical study of plants used against onchocerciasis in the far north region of Cameroon. Planta Med. Chem. Rich.) Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine or xanthine using oxygen as a cofactor, and the resulting end products are superoxide anion (O2•−) and uric acid. Ngounou, E. N., Meli, A. L., and Lontsi, D. (2000). Aubreville, A. Agbor, G. A., Kuate, A., and Oben, J. E. (2007). (2002). Data collection included local names of the plants, the plant parts used in the traditional medicine, the disease treated by the plant-based remedies and the method of preparation of the medicines. (Palmae) and Ricinodendron heudelotti (Baill.) J. Ethnopharmacol. Tetrahedron 50, 9343–9354. Hypoglucaemic effect of methylène chloride/methanol root extract of Ceiba pentandra in normal and diabetic rats. Toxicol. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. Pharmacol 211, 177–187. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs. Res. The potential of African plants as source of drugs. Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Ouellette, M., Drummelsmith, J., and Papadopoulou, B. Protective role of Anacardium occidentale extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Anticoccidial constituents from the stem bark of Turraeanthus africanus. 4, 12. Paris: CRC Press. Mongelli, E., Desmarchelier, C., Rodriguez-Talou, J., Coussio, J., and Ciccia, G. (1997). 727, 1–113. Res. Sixty eight percent of the documented plants are used to treat more than twenty important diseases. Health care activities are coordinated by the Ministry of Public Health which receives the second highest budgetary allocation per ministry each year (Speak Clear Association of Cameroon, 2004). Lewis, M. A., Arnason, J. T., Philogene, B. J. R., Rupprecht, J. K., and McLaughlin, J. L. (1993). (Palmae), Raphia vinifera P.Beauv. La médécine traditionnelle chez les Bekpak (Bafia) du Cameroun. (Gnetaceae), Invingia gabonensis Baill. The management of diabetes is a global problem and a successful treatment has not yet been discovered. (2005). Medicinal plants can be good source of antioxidant: Case study in Cameroon.
2020 list of medicinal plants in cameroon